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如何记住你读过的书「转载」

此文的原地址是:

How to Remember What You Read

后被增长黑客的作者范冰在微信公众号上发布了这篇文章的中文译文,作者是通过Deepl+人工校对+人工批注的形式翻译成了中文。看到此文时,第一个想法是让更多的人知道有这么一篇文章,和我一样在读书的时候,除了每年能有很高的阅读量之外,了解一些读书的技巧,特别是经常看一些商业类、工具类的图书的人。下面是正文。


It happens all the time. You read an amazing book, one so packed with wisdom that you think it’s going to change your life forever. Then…it doesn’t. Why? Because when you’re finally in a situation where you could use its insights, you’ve completely forgotten them. Time is our most valuable resource, so we shouldn’t waste it. The investment we make in reading should have a positive, lasting impact on our lives.

这种情况一直在发生。你读了一本令人惊奇的书,其中充满了智慧,你认为它将永远改变你的生活。然后......它没有。为什么?因为当你最终处于可以使用其见解的情况时,你已经完全忘记了它们。时间是我们最宝贵的资源,所以我们不应该浪费它。我们在阅读方面的投资应该对我们的生活产生积极、持久的影响。

Consuming information is not the same as acquiring knowledge. No idea could be further from the truth.

消费信息不等于获得知识。任何想法都不可能远离事实。

Learning means being able to use new information. The basic process of learning consists of reflection and feedback. We learn facts and concepts through reflecting on experience—our own or others’. If you read something and you don’t make time to think about what you’ve read, you won’t be able to use any of the wisdom you’ve been exposed to.

学习意味着能够使用新的信息。学习的基本过程包括反思和反馈。我们通过对自己或他人的经验进行反思来学习事实和概念。如果你读了一些东西,却没有抽出时间来思考你所读的东西,你将无法使用你所接触到的任何智慧。

One of the reasons that we read books is because they offer a rich tapestry of details, allowing us to see the world of the author and go on their journey with them. Our brains can learn not only the author’s ideas but also when their conclusions about how to live are likely to work and when they are likely to fail (thanks to the vast amount of details that authors share about their experiences and thought processes).

我们阅读书籍的原因之一是,书籍提供了丰富的细节,使我们能够看到作者的世界,并与他们一起去旅行。我们的大脑不仅可以了解作者的想法,还可以了解他们关于如何生活的结论何时可能成功,何时可能失败(这要归功于作者分享的大量关于其经验和思维过程的细节)。

But if you only remember six things after reading this article, it should be the following truths about reading:

但如果你在读完这篇文章后只记得六件事,那应该是以下关于阅读的真理:

  1. Quality matters more than quantity. If you read one book a month but fully appreciate and absorb it, you’ll be better off than someone who skims half the library without paying attention. 质量比数量更重要。如果你每月读一本书,但充分欣赏和吸收它,你会比那些不注意就略过半个图书馆的人更好。(@XDash 批注:我的付费信息源推荐分享我的信息筛选管道
  2. Speed-reading is bullshit. Getting the rough gist and absorbing the lessons are two different things. Confuse them at your peril. 速读是胡说八道。掌握大概的要领和吸收课程是两件事。如果把它们混为一谈,你将面临危险。(@XDash 批注:非常赞同,虽然我也曾一年读书 196 本,但主要是靠运用合理的阅读技巧)
  3. Book summary services miss the point. A lot of companies charge ridiculous prices for access to vague summaries bearing only the faintest resemblance to anything in the book. Summaries can be a useful jumping-off point to explore your curiosity, but you cannot learn from them the way you can from the original text.* 书籍摘要服务没有抓住重点。很多公司为了获得与书中内容只有最微弱的相似之处的模糊摘要而收取荒谬的价格。摘要可以是探索你的好奇心的一个有用的跳板,但你不能像从原文中学习那样从它们那里学到东西*。
  4. Fancy apps and tools are not needed. A notebook, index cards, and a pen will do just fine. 花哨的应用程序和工具是不需要的。一本笔记本、索引卡和一支笔就可以了。 (@XDash 批注:我在分享个人 PKM 半年迭代经验的文章里也提到,不应该刻意追求工具的复杂度)
  5. We shouldn’t read stuff we find boring. Life is far too short. 我们不应该读我们认为无聊的东西。生命太短暂了。
  6. Finishing the book is optional. You should start a lot of books and only finish a few of them. 读完一本书是可选的。你应该开始大量的书,只完成其中的几本。

In this article, we’ll explore multiple strategies for getting more out of what you read. You don’t need to use all these strategies for every book. Using just a couple of them, whether you’re trying to learn a new philosophy or reading a work of fiction, can help you retain more and make deeper connections.

在这篇文章中,我们将探讨多种策略,以便从你的阅读中获得更多。你不需要对每本书都使用所有这些策略。只要使用其中的几个策略,无论你是想学习新的哲学还是阅读小说,都可以帮助你保留更多的内容,并建立更深的联系。

What you read can give you access to untold knowledge. But how you read changes the trajectory of your life.

你所读的东西可以让你获得难以计数的知识。但你如何阅读会改变你的生活轨迹。

Sections 内容框架:

1) Active reading 主动阅读

    • Choose great books 选择好书
    • Get some context 获得一些背景资料
    • Know your why 知道你的动机
    • Intelligently skim 聪明地略过
    • Match your book to your environment 使你的书与你的环境相匹配

2) Remembering what you read 记住你读过的

    • Take notes 做笔记
    • Stay focused 聚焦
    • Mark up the book 做标注
    • Make mental links 建立心理链接
    • Quit when Bored 无聊就停止

3) Now what? 现在怎么办?

    • Apply what you’ve learned 应用你所学
    • Make your notes searchable 让笔记易于检索
    • Reread 反复阅读

***

Active reading 主动阅读

“Every time I read a great book I felt I was reading a kind of map, a treasure map, and the treasure I was being directed to was in actual fact myself. But each map was incomplete, and I would only locate the treasure if I read all the books, and so the process of finding my best self was an endless quest. And books themselves seemed to reflect this idea. Which is why the plot of every book ever can be boiled down to ‘someone is looking for something.’” —Matt Haig, Reasons to Stay Alive

"每当我读到一本好书时,我都觉得自己在读一种地图,一张藏宝图,而我被指引到的宝藏实际上就是我自己。但每张地图都是不完整的,我只有读完所有的书才能找到宝藏,所以寻找最好的自己的过程是一个无尽的探索。书籍本身似乎也反映了这种想法。这就是为什么每本书的情节都可以归结为'有人在寻找什么'。" -马特-海格,《活着的理由》(Reasons to Stay Alive)。

Now, if you’re only reading for fun, or if you don’t want to remember what you read, this article doesn’t apply. Sometimes reading is entertainment, and that’s wonderful. But if you want to get some valuable knowledge out of a book, the first step to getting more out of what you read is being active. So what is active reading?

现在,如果你只是为了好玩而阅读,或者如果你不想记住你所读的东西,这篇文章就不适用。有时阅读是一种娱乐,这很好。但如果你想从书中获得一些有价值的知识,从阅读中获得更多东西的第一步就是要积极主动。那么什么是主动阅读呢?

Active reading is thoughtfully engaging with a book at all steps in the reading process. From deciding to read right through to reflection afterwards, you have a plan for how you are going to ingest and learn what’s in the book.

主动阅读是指在阅读过程中的所有步骤中深思熟虑地参与一本书。从决定阅读到阅读后的反思,你有一个计划,即你将如何摄取和学习书中的内容。

Books don’t enter our lives against a blank slate. Each time we pick up a book, the content has to compete with what we already think we know. Making room for the book, and the potential wisdom it contains, requires you to question and reflect as you read.

书籍进入我们的生活时并不是一张白纸。每次我们拿起一本书时,其内容必须与我们已经认为自己知道的内容相竞争。为书和它所包含的潜在智慧腾出空间,需要你在阅读时提出问题并进行反思。

For example, you might ask yourself 例如,你可以问自己:

  • How does the book relate to topics you’re already familiar with? 这本书与你已经熟悉的主题有什么关系?
  • What about the book challenges you? 这本书的哪些方面对你有挑战?
  • What are your preconceived notions about its subject, and how can you put them aside? 你对这本书的主题有什么先入为主的观念,你怎样才能把它们放在一边?

Active reading helps you make connections within your latticework of mental models. Connections help retention.

主动阅读可以帮助你在你的心理模型的格子里建立联系。联系有助于保持记忆。

Think back to the books you studied in school, if you did. Despite the passage of time, many people remember a surprising amount about them. Even if the details are fuzzy, we might at least be able to recall the basic plots, main characters, notable themes, and motifs. Why? Well for one, we probably didn’t just passively read those books. We were forced to actively read them, perhaps complete with class discussions where we took turns reading parts aloud, acted out scenes, or maybe even watched film adaptations. No matter how long it has been since we set foot in a classroom, many of us probably remember Animal Farm.

回想一下你在学校学习的书籍,如果你有的话。尽管时间流逝,许多人对这些书的记忆都很惊人。即使细节很模糊,我们至少可以回忆起基本的情节、主要人物、值得注意的主题和动机。为什么呢?首先,我们可能不只是被动地阅读这些书。我们被迫积极地阅读它们,也许在课堂讨论中,我们轮流大声朗读部分内容,表演场景,甚至可能观看改编的电影。无论我们有多久没有踏入教室,我们中的许多人可能都记得《动物农场》。

Your first goal when reading is to not be a passive consumer of information. You want to get better, learn something, and develop your critical thinking skills. If you had a good English teacher in school, you will have already seen this in action.

阅读时,你的第一个目标是不要做一个被动的信息消费者。你想变得更好,学到一些东西,并发展你的批判性思维能力。如果你在学校有一个好的英语老师,你就已经看到了这一点的作用。

To get the most out of each book we read, it is vital we know how to record, reflect on, and put into action our conclusions.

为了从我们阅读的每本书中获得最大的收获,至关重要的是我们知道如何记录、反思并将我们的结论付诸行动。

A lot of success in reading boils down to preparation. What you do before you read matters more than you think. Here are five strategies to help you plan and get in the active reading frame of mind.

阅读的很多成功都归结于准备。你在阅读前所做的事情比你想象的更重要。这里有五个策略,可以帮助你计划并进入积极的阅读状态。

Choose Great Books 选择好书

“Think before you speak. Read before you think.” —Fran Lebowitz

"在你说话之前先思考。在你思考之前先阅读"。-弗兰克-莱博维茨

There are no rules when it comes to choosing books. We don’t have to read bestsellers, or classics, or books everyone else raves about. This isn’t school and there are no required reading lists. In fact, there’s an advantage to be gained from reading things other people are not reading, because you will gain knowledge and insights that not everyone else has. Focus on some combination of books that: 1) stand the test of time; 2) pique your interest; or 3) challenge you.

在选择书籍方面没有任何规则。我们不必阅读畅销书,或经典之作,或其他人都赞不绝口的书。这不是学校,没有必读书目。事实上,读别人不读的东西会有好处,因为你会获得别人没有的知识和见解。专注于一些书籍的组合。1)经得起时间的考验;2)激起你的兴趣;或3)挑战你。(@XDash 批注:参见我的信息分级管理原则

The more interesting and relevant we find a book, the more likely we are to remember its contents in the future. For older books or those that have been translated, check which version is considered to be the best.

我们发现一本书越有趣,越有意义,就越有可能在未来记住它的内容。对于较早的书或已经翻译过的书,请检查哪个版本被认为是最好的。

Get some context 获得一些背景资料

A good place to start getting context is by doing some preliminary research on the book. Some books—for example, A Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole and Paradise by Toni Morrison—have a richer meaning once we know a bit about the life of the author and the place and time in which the novel was set.

开始了解背景的一个好地方是对这本书做一些初步研究。有些书--例如,约翰·肯尼迪·图尔的《傻瓜联盟》和托尼·莫里斯的《天堂》,一旦我们对作者的生活和小说的背景有了一定的了解,其意义就会更加丰富。

For older books, try to understand the historical context. For books written in an unfamiliar country, try to understand the cultural context. Some helpful questions to ask include the following:

对于古老的书籍,要努力了解其历史背景。对于在不熟悉的国家写的书,尽量了解其文化背景。要问的一些有用的问题包括:

  • Why did the author write this?  作者为什么要写这个?
  • What is their background? 他们的背景是什么?
  • What else have they written? 他们还写过什么?
  • Where was it written? Was there anything interesting about the writing process? 是在哪里写的?在写作过程中有没有什么有趣的事情?
  • What was the political, economic, and cultural situation at the time of writing? 写作时的政治、经济和文化状况如何?
  • Has the book been translated or reprinted? 该书是否被翻译或再版过?
  • Did any important events—a war, an economic depression, a change of leadership, the emergence of new technology—happen during the writing of the book? 在写书期间是否发生了什么重要事件——战争、经济萧条、领导层的变化、新技术的出现?
  • What was happening in the world during the time the novel is set? This is particularly useful to ask when it comes to fiction. 在小说设定的时间内,世界上发生了什么?当涉及到小说时,这个问题特别有用。

You don’t need to do this, but if you want to get a lot out of a book it will be a major boost.

你不是非得这样做,但如果你想从一本书中得到很多东西,这将是一个很大的促进。

Know your why 知道你的动机

What are you reading this book for? Entertainment? To understand something or someone you don’t know? To get better at your job? To improve your health? To learn a skill? To help build a business?

你读这本书是为了什么?娱乐?为了了解你不了解的东西或人?为了更好地完成工作?为了改善你的健康?学习一种技能?帮助建立一个企业?

You have to have some idea of what you want to get from the book. If you don’t read with intention, what you read will never stick. If you are looking for business insights, read for that.

你必须对你想从书中得到什么有一些想法。如果你不带着动机阅读,你的阅读将永远不会长久。如果你在寻找商业上的见解,那就为此而读。

Periodically ask yourself questions like: What can I learn from this story? What in this book parallels or pertains to my own challenges? What are the differences? How might I apply some of the insights I’m picking up?

定期问自己这样的问题。我可以从这个故事中学到什么?这本书中哪些内容与我自己的挑战相似或相关?有哪些不同之处?我如何应用我所获得的一些见解?

Intelligently skim 聪明地略读

Before starting to read a book (particularly nonfiction), skim through the index, contents page, preface, and inside the jacket to get an idea of the subject matter. (This article on how to read a book is an introduction to more effective skimming.) Use this information to situate your expectations and refine what you are looking for as you read.

在开始阅读一本书(尤其是非小说类)之前,先浏览一下索引、目录页、序言和封面内页,以了解主题。(这篇关于如何阅读一本书的文章是关于更有效的略读的介绍)。) 利用这些信息来确定你的期望值,并在阅读过程中完善你要寻找的内容。

The bibliography can also indicate the tone and scope of a book. Authors often read hundreds of books for each one they write, so a well-researched book should have a bibliography full of interesting texts. After you’ve read the book, peruse the bibliography again and make a note of any books you want to read next.

书目也可以表明一本书的语气和范围。作者每写一本书,往往要读几百本书,所以一本研究得好的书应该有一个充满有趣的书目。在你读完这本书后,再次浏览书目,并记下你接下来想读的任何书。

Match the book to your environment 将书与你的环境相匹配

Although it’s not always practical, matching books to our location and circumstances can be powerful. Books will have a greater resonance as they become part of an experience rather than just supplementing it.

虽然并不总是实用,但将书与我们的位置和环境相匹配,可以起到很大的作用。书籍会产生更大的共鸣,因为它们成为经验的一部分,而不仅仅是补充。

When choosing books, take a look at your own situation and decide on genres or authors that might help you overcome any current challenges or give you a fresh perspective. Whatever your state of affairs, someone has been in the same place. Someone has felt the same feelings and thought the same thoughts and written about it. Someone can offer you new and useful ideas for navigating your situation. It’s up to you to find them.

在选择书籍时,看看你自己的情况,决定那些可能帮助你克服当前任何挑战或给你带来新视角的类型或作者。无论你的状况如何,有人曾在同样的地方。有人有同样的感受,有同样的想法,并把它写出来。有人可以为你提供新的和有用的想法来引导你的状况。这取决于你是否能找到它们。

If we were doctors, we’d prescribe books. They can be powerful and healing.

如果我们是医生,我们会拿书当处方。它们可以是强大的、有疗效的。

***

Remembering what you read 记住你读过的

“The things you’re looking for, Montag, are in the world, but the only way the average chap will ever see ninety-nine percent of them is in a book.” —Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451

"你要找的东西,蒙塔格,就在这个世界上,但普通人看到其中百分之九十九的东西的唯一途径就是在书中。" ——雷·布雷德伯里,《华氏451》。

Now that you’re actively reading, you’re engaging on a deeper level with the book. You are making connections to your own life, seeing new opportunities and possibilities. The next step is making sure you remember what’s important. Even the most diligent of us get caught up in the busyness of life, and we thus lose those still-fragile connections we make while reading. But we can help with that.

现在你开始积极地阅读,你在更深的层次上参与一本书。你正在与你自己的生活建立联系,看到新的机会和可能性。下一步是确保你记住重要的东西。即使是我们中最勤奋的人也会被生活的忙碌所吸引,从而失去我们在阅读时建立的那些仍然脆弱的联系。但是我们可以帮助解决这个问题。

You’ll remember more of what you read if you do the following five things while you’re reading.

如果你在阅读时做以下五件事,你会记住更多你所读的内容。

Takes notes 做笔记

Making notes is an important foundation for reflecting and integrating what you read into your mind.

做笔记是反思和将你所读的内容融入你的头脑的重要基础。

The best technique for notetaking is whichever one works for you and is easy to stick to. While there are hundreds of systems on the internet, you need to take one of them and adapt it until you have your own system. Some people prefer to record notes on index cards or in a commonplace book; others prefer a digital system. Notes are especially useful if you write on a regular basis, although everyone (not just writers) can benefit from making them.

最好的记笔记技巧是适合你并容易坚持的那一种。虽然互联网上有数以百计的系统,但你需要从其中选择一个,并加以调整,直到你拥有自己的系统。有些人喜欢在索引卡或通俗读物中记录笔记;有些人则喜欢数字系统。如果你经常写作,笔记就特别有用,尽管每个人(不仅仅是作家)都能从做笔记中受益。

In How to Take Smart Notes, Sönke Ahrens suggests a way of approaching notetaking to make the books you read a lasting part of your thinking. If you’ve never really done any notetaking that was effective, his book is a great place to start. But wherever you begin, you must make a system your own depending on how you work and what you like to read. Although How to Take Smart Notes focuses on nonfiction and assumes that fiction writers (and readers) have no need of notes, don’t let that stop you if you are researching a time period in which to set a novel or you’re trying to learn story structure and style from the great novelists. Adapt your notetaking system to suit your goals.

在《卡片笔记写作法》中,Sönke Ahrens 提出了一种做笔记的方法,使你所读的书成为你思维中持久的一部分。如果你从未真正做过任何有效的笔记,他的书是一个很好的开始。但是,无论你从哪里开始,你都必须根据你的工作方式和你喜欢阅读的内容来制定一个属于你自己的系统。尽管《卡片笔记写作法》侧重于非小说,并假定小说作者(和读者)不需要笔记,但如果你正在研究一个时间段来设定小说,或者你想从伟大的小说家那里学习故事结构和风格,不要让这一点阻止你。调整你的记事系统以适应你的目标。

Over the years, we tested a lot of different approaches to note-taking and even created our own that we use every day called the Blank Sheet Method. Here is how it works.

多年来,我们测试了很多不同的记笔记方法,甚至创造了我们自己的方法,我们每天都在使用,称为空白页法。以下是它的工作原理。

  1. Before you start reading a new book, take out a blank sheet of paper. Write down what you know about the book/subject you’re about to read — a mind map if you will. 在你开始阅读一本新书之前,拿出一张白纸。写下你对即将阅读的书/主题的了解--如果你愿意的话,就是一张思维导图。
  2. After you finish a reading session, spend a few minutes adding to the map with a different color. 在你完成一个阅读环节后,花几分钟时间用不同的颜色添加到思维导图上。
  3. Before you start your next reading session, review the page. 在你开始下一个阅读环节之前,回顾一下这一页。
  4. When you’re done reading, put these ‘blank sheets’ into a binder that you periodically review. 当你完成阅读后,把这些 "空白页 "放到一个夹子里,定期回顾。

The blank sheet method is effective because it primes your brain and shows you what you’re learning. When you first start with a blank sheet, you’re forced to search your memory and put on paper what you know (or what you think you know) about a subject. As you read, you literally see your knowledge grow. If you don’t know anything about a book or subject going in, don’t worry. You’ll be able to borrow the author’s scaffolding to get you started. Reviewing your ‘blank sheet’ before your next reading session not only recalls the scaffolding and key ideas but improves your memory and connects ideas. When you’re done the book put the page into a binder. Review the binder every few months. This is essential for establishing deep fluency and connecting ideas across disciplines.

空白页的方法是有效的,因为它为你的大脑提供了动力,并向你展示了你正在学习的内容。当你第一次用空白纸开始阅读时,你不得不搜索你的记忆,并将你对某一主题的了解(或你认为你了解的)写在纸上。当你阅读时,你会看到你的知识在增长。如果你对某本书或某个主题一无所知,不要担心。你可以借用作者的脚手架来让你开始。在下一次阅读之前,回顾你的 "白纸",不仅可以回忆起脚手架和关键的想法,还可以提高你的记忆力,并将想法联系起来。当你读完这本书后,把这一页放进一个活页夹。每隔几个月复习一次活页夹。这对建立深入的流畅性和跨学科的思想联系至关重要。

Another effective technique is to start your notetaking by writing a short summary of each chapter and transcribing any meaningful passages or phrases. If you are unsure how to simplify your thoughts, imagine that someone has tapped you on the shoulder and asked you to explain the chapter you just finished reading. They have never read this book and lack any idea of the subject matter. How would you explain it to them?

另一个有效的技巧是,在开始记笔记时,对每一章写一个简短的总结,并抄写任何有意义的段落或短语。如果你不确定如何简化你的想法,可以想象有人拍拍你的肩膀,让你解释你刚读完的章节。他们从未读过这本书,对这一主题缺乏任何概念。你会如何向他们解释呢?

As you are reading a book, write your chapter summary right at the end of the chapter. If your reading session is over, this helps synthesize what you just read. When you pick up the book tomorrow, start by reading the previous two chapter summaries to help prime your mind to where you are in the book.

当你在阅读一本书时,在这一章的结尾处就写下你的章节总结。如果你的阅读课结束了,这有助于归纳你刚刚读过的内容。当你明天拿起这本书时,先读一读前两章的总结,以帮助你了解你在书中的位置。

(@XDash 批注:你应该找到适合自己的笔记系统。例如:我如何构建个人纯文本笔记系统Obsidian 使用推荐。)

Stay focused 聚焦

Decide that for the time you will be reading, you will focus on the book and nothing else. No quick Twitter checks. No emails. No cell phone. No TV. No staring into midair. Understanding and absorbing a book requires deep focus, especially if the subject matter is dense or complex. Remember, we are aiming for active reading. Active reading requires focus and the ability to engage with the words on the page.

决定在你阅读的这段时间里,你将专注于这本书,而不是其他。不要快速查看Twitter。不发电子邮件。不打手机。不看电视。不盯着半空。理解和吸收一本书需要深度专注,尤其是当主题密集或复杂时。记住,我们的目标是主动阅读。主动阅读需要专注,需要有能力与书页上的文字打交道。

Referring to the time before the internet, Nicholas Carr writes in The Shallows: “In the quiet spaces opened up by the prolonged, undistracted reading of a book, people made their own associations, drew their own inferences and analogies, fostered their own ideas. They thought deeply as they read deeply.

尼古拉斯·卡尔在《浅滩》中提到互联网之前的时代时写道:"在长时间不受干扰地阅读一本书所开辟的安静空间里,人们进行自己的联想,得出自己的推理和类比,培养自己的想法。他们在深入阅读的同时也进行了深入的思考。

When you’re looking for results, for some tangible change to come out of reading a book, you need to engage with it as you’re reading it. And that requires focus.

当你在寻找结果时,为了从阅读一本书中获得一些具体的变化,你需要在阅读时参与其中。而这需要专注。

If you’re struggling to stay focused on a particularly difficult or lengthy book, decide to read a mere 25 pages of it a day. It takes only a few minutes to nibble away at a challenging text. Completing a long book in this manner might take months, but at least you will have read it without getting overwhelmed or bored.

如果你正在努力保持对一本特别困难或冗长的书的专注,可以决定每天只读25页的书。只需要几分钟时间就可以啃完一本有难度的书。以这种方式完成一本长书可能需要几个月的时间,但至少你会读完它而不会被淹没或感到无聊。

Mark up the book 在书上做标记

Most of us were taught as children to treat books as something sacred—no folding the page corners, and no writing in the margins, ever. However, if you want to remember what you read and you have the means to do so, forget about keeping books pristine.

我们大多数人在小时候都被教育要把书当作神圣的东西--不能折页角,也不能在空白处写字,永远不能。然而,如果你想记住你所读的东西,而且你有办法做到这一点,那就忘了保持书本的原始状态。

Go crazy with marginalia. The more you write, the more active your mind will be while reading. If you can’t mark up the book, do it on paper and note the page numbers.

在空白处疯狂地写吧。你写得越多,你在阅读时的思维就越活跃。如果你不能在书上做标记,就在纸上做,并记下页码。

Jot down connections and tangential thoughts, underline key passages, and make a habit of building a dialogue with the author(s). Some people recommend making your own index of key pages or using abbreviations.

记下联系和切身的想法,在关键段落下划线,并养成与作者对话的习惯。有些人建议自己制作关键页面的索引或使用缩写。

The first time you write in a book can be unnerving, but in the long term, it leads to a rich understanding and a sense of connection with the author.

第一次写书可能会让人感到不安,但从长远来看,这将导致丰富的理解和与作者的联系感。

Make mental links 建立心理链接

Books do not exist in a vacuum. Every concept or fact can be linked to countless others. Making an effort to form our own links is a fruitful way to better remember what we read.

书籍不是存在于真空中。每一个概念或事实都可以与无数的其他概念或事实相联系。努力形成我们自己的联系是一个富有成效的方法,可以更好地记住我们的阅读内容。

Building vivid mental pictures is one of the most effective techniques for remembering anything, not least what we read. When you come across an important passage or concept, pause and visualize it. Make the picture as salient and distinctive as possible by connecting it to other ideas already in your brain.

建立生动的心理画面是记住任何东西的最有效的技巧之一,尤其是我们所读的东西。当你遇到一个重要的段落或概念时,暂停一下,把它想象出来。通过将它与你大脑中已有的其他想法联系起来,使画面尽可能突出和鲜明。

Another way of building links is to hang everything on a latticework of mental models. Having a framework of deliberately constructed concepts enables us to better understand and synthesize books by allowing us to make connections to what we already know. Knowledge sticks in our memories easier if it attaches to something we already understand.

另一种建立联系的方法是将一切都挂在心理模型的格子上。拥有一个特意构建的概念框架使我们能够更好地理解和综合书籍,使我们能够与我们已经知道的东西建立联系。如果知识与我们已经理解的东西相联系,它就更容易在我们的记忆中扎根。

Using models while reading can also help you get more out of the book. Here are some examples of paths they might lead you down:

在阅读时使用模型也可以帮助你从书中获得更多。下面是一些例子,它们可能会引导你走的路:

  • Confirmation bias: Which parts of this book am I ignoring? Does this book confirm my opinions? (Okay, but does it actually affirm your beliefs or are you just seeing what you want to see? If you cannot think of a single point in the book that you disagreed with, confirmation bias is likely distorting your reasoning.) 确认性偏见:我忽略了这本书的哪些部分?这本书是否证实了我的观点?(好的,但它是否真的肯定了你的信念,还是你只是看到了你想看到的东西?如果你想不出书中有哪一点是你不同意的,那么确认性偏见很可能扭曲了你的推理。)
  • Bayesian updating: What opinions should I change in light of this book? How can I update my worldview using the information in it? Keep in mind the words of John Maynard Keynes: “When the facts change, I change my mind. What do you do, sir? 贝叶斯更新:根据这本书,我应该改变哪些观点?我如何利用其中的信息更新我的世界观?牢记约翰-梅纳德-凯恩斯的话:"当事实改变时,我就改变我的想法。你是怎么做的,先生?” (@XDash 标注:贝叶斯相关基础文章,我写过这篇
  • Incentives: What motivates the characters or the author? What are they seeking? What is their purpose? Here’s how Kurt Vonnegut described the importance of incentives in books: “When I used to teach creative writing, I would tell the students to make their characters want something right away—even if it’s only a glass of water. Characters paralyzed by the meaninglessness of modern life still have to drink water from time to time.” 激励措施:是什么激励着人物或作者?他们在寻求什么?他们的目的是什么?库尔特·冯内古特是这样描述书中激励机制的重要性的。"我以前教创意写作的时候,我会告诉学生,要让他们的角色马上就有所求——即使只是一杯水。被现代生活的无意义所麻痹的人物仍然要不时地喝水"。
  • Availability bias: Are the books I have recently read affecting how I perceive this one? How are my immediate past experiences shaping my reading? Am I assigning undue importance to parts of this book because they are salient and memorable? 可用性偏差:我最近读过的书是否影响我对这本书的看法?我过去的直接经验是如何影响我的阅读的?我是否对这本书的部分内容给予了过分的重视,因为它们是突出的、令人难忘的?
  • Social proof: How is social proof—the number of copies sold, bestseller status, the opinions of others—affecting my perception of this book? Is the author using social proof to manipulate readers? It is not unusual for authors to buy their way onto bestseller lists, providing social proof that then leads to substantial sales. As a result, mediocre books can end up becoming popular. It’s a classic case of the emperor having no clothes, which smart readers know to look out for. 社会证明:社会证明——售出的数量、畅销书的地位、他人的意见——是如何影响我对这本书的看法的?作者是否利用社会证明来操纵读者?作者通过购买方式进入畅销书排行榜,提供社会证明,然后导致大量销售,这种情况并不罕见。因此,平庸的书最终会变得流行。这是一个皇帝没有衣服的典型案例,聪明的读者知道要注意这个问题。
  • Survivorship bias: Is this (nonfiction) book a representation of reality or is the author failing to account for base rates? Survivorship bias is abundant in business, self-help, and biographical books. A particular case of a successful individual or business might be held as the rule, rather than the exception. 幸存者偏差:这本(非虚构)书是现实的代表,还是作者没有考虑到基本率?幸存者偏差在商业、自助和传记书籍中比比皆是。一个成功的个人或企业的特定案例可能会被认为是规则,而不是例外。
  • Utility: If a book offers advice, does it have practical applications? At what point dodiminishingreturns set in?  实用性。如果一本书提供建议,它是否有实际应用?在哪一点上?

Stop when bored 无聊就停止

When it comes to reading, you don’t need to finish what you start. As a general rule, people who love reading never, ever finish a crappy book.

谈到阅读,你不需要完成你开始的事情。一般来说,热爱阅读的人永远不会完成一本糟糕的书。

As Arthur Schopenhauer once wrote, “One can never read too little of bad, or too much of good books: bad books are intellectual poison; they destroy the mind.” Life is much too short to finish a bad book. You need to be ruthless and heartless. Don’t let sunk costs guilt you into wasting your time.

正如阿瑟-叔本华曾经写道:"一个人永远不可能读太少的坏书,也不可能读太多的好书:坏书是智力的毒药;它们会摧毁人的思想。" 生命太短暂了,无法完成一本坏书。你需要做到无情无义。不要让沉没成本使你愧疚,浪费你的时间。(@XDash 批注:人生应该「反脆弱」,我收集了你应该极力避免的 75 件事。)

Author and librarian Nancy Pearl advocates the “Rule of 50.” This entails reading the first 50 pages of a book and then deciding if it is worth finishing. The Rule of 50 has an interesting feature: once you are over the age of 50, subtract your age from 100 and read that many pages. Pearl writes:

作家兼图书管理员南希·珀尔提倡 "50法则"。这需要阅读一本书的前50页,然后决定它是否值得完成。50法则有一个有趣的特点:一旦你超过了50岁,就用100减去你的年龄,然后读那么多页。珀尔写道:

“And if, at the bottom of Page 50, all you are really interested in is who marries whom, or who the murderer is, then turn to the last page and find out. If it’s not on the last page, turn to the penultimate page, or the antepenultimate page, or however far back you have to go to discover what you want to know.…When you are 51 years of age or older, subtract your age from 100, and the resulting number (which, of course, gets smaller every year) is the number of pages you should read before you can guiltlessly give up on a book.…When you turn 100, you are authorized (by the Rule of 50) to judge a book by its cover.”

"如果在第50页的底部,你真正感兴趣的是谁娶了谁,或者谁是凶手,那么就翻到最后一页,找出答案。如果不在最后一页,就翻到倒数第二页,或倒数第二页,或不管你要翻到多远才能发现你想知道的东西....。当你51岁或以上时,用100减去你的年龄,得出的数字(当然,每年都会变小)就是你在无罪地放弃一本书之前应该读的页数....。当你100岁时,你被授权(根据50规则)根据封面判断一本书。"

***

Now what? 现在怎么办?

So you’ve finished the book. Now what? How can you use what you have learned? Don’t just go away with a vague sense of “Oh yeah, I should totally do what that author says.” Take the time to make a plan and decide how to implement key lessons from the book.

所以你已经完成了这本书。现在怎么办?你如何使用你学到的东西?不要只是带着一种模糊的感觉离开,"哦,是的,我应该完全按照那个作者说的做"。花点时间制定一个计划,决定如何实施书中的关键课程。

Apply what you’ve learned 应用你所学到的东西

Reading alone is not enough. We have to contextualize the knowledge. When does it work? When doesn’t it work? Where can I apply it? What are the key variables? The list goes on. If you can take something you’ve read and apply it immediately, it will reinforce the learning and add context and meaning.

仅仅阅读是不够的。我们必须将知识结合起来。什么时候有效?什么时候不起作用?我可以在哪里应用它?关键的变量是什么?这样的例子不胜枚举。如果你能把你读过的东西立即应用起来,这将强化学习,并增加背景和意义。

Another way to reinforce the learning is to apply the Feynman technique, named after the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman. You can think of it as an algorithm for guaranteed learning. There are four simple steps: choose a concept, teach it to someone unfamiliar with the subject, identify gaps in your understanding and go back to the source material, and review and simplify.

另一种强化学习的方法是应用以诺贝尔奖获得者理查德·费曼命名的费曼技巧。你可以把它看作是一种保证学习的算法。有四个简单的步骤:选择一个概念,把它教给不熟悉这个主题的人,找出你理解上的差距并回到原始材料中去,然后复习和简化。

Teaching others is a powerful way to embed information in your mind. Upon completing a book, grab the nearest (willing) person and tell them about what you have learned. You’ll have to remove or explain the jargon, describe why this information has meaning, and walk them through the author’s logic. It sounds simple. After you try it the first time, you’ll realize it’s not easy.

教导他人是将信息嵌入你头脑中的一个强有力的方法。完成一本书后,抓住最近的(愿意)人,告诉他们你所学到的东西。你要去掉或解释那些专业术语,描述为什么这些信息有意义,并带领他们了解作者的逻辑。这听起来很简单。当你第一次尝试后,你会发现这并不容易。

If there is no one around who is interested, try writing a review where people are encouraged to comment and debate.

如果周围没有人感兴趣,可以试着写一篇评论,鼓励人们发表评论和辩论。

In order to think for yourself, you need to reflect on your views and see how they stand up to feedback.

为了独立思考,你需要反思自己的观点,看看它们如何经得起反馈。

Make your notes searchable 让你的笔记易于检索

There are endless ways of organizing your notes—by book, by author, by topic, by the time of reading. It doesn’t matter which system you use as long as you will be able to find the notes in the future.

有无尽的方法来组织你的笔记--按书、按作者、按主题、按阅读时间。只要你能在将来找到这些笔记,使用哪种系统并不重要。

Having a catalogue of everything you learn from reading creates a priceless resource that can be consulted whenever you need an idea, want inspiration, or want to confirm a thought. Over the years, you will build up a bank of wisdom to refer to in times of crisis, uncertainty, or need. It is hard to convey quite how valuable this can prove to be.

把你从阅读中学到的所有东西都编成目录,就会形成一种无价的资源,每当你需要一个想法,想要得到灵感,或者想要确认一个想法时,都可以查阅。多年来,你将建立起一个智慧库,在危机、不确定或需要时可以参考。这一点很难说得清楚,这可以证明是多么有价值。

As General Jim Mattis wrote: “Thanks to my reading, I have never been caught flat-footed by any situation, never at a loss for how any problem has been addressed (successfully or unsuccessfully) before. It doesn’t give me all the answers, but it lights what is often a dark path ahead.

正如吉姆·马蒂斯将军所写的那样:"由于我的阅读,我从来没有在任何情况下措手不及,从来没有对以前如何解决任何问题(成功或不成功)感到茫然。它并没有给我所有的答案,但它照亮了往往是黑暗的前路。"

The options for cataloguing your notes include the following 对你的笔记进行编目,有以下几种选择:

  • A box of index cards, ideally organized by subject, topic, author, or time of reading. Index cards can be moved around. 一盒索引卡,最好按主题、话题、作者或阅读时间组织。索引卡可以随意移动。
  • A commonplace book (again, ideally organized by topic, author, or time of reading). 一本普通的书(同样,最好是按主题、作者或阅读时间来组织)。
  • A digital system, such as Evernote, OneNote, or plain old Microsoft Word. Digital systems have the added benefit of being searchable, which can save a lot of time if you refer to your notes on a regular basis.  一个数字系统,如Evernote、OneNote或普通的Microsoft Word。数字系统还有一个好处就是可以搜索,如果你经常参考你的笔记,可以节省很多时间。

Schedule time to read and review these notes. 安排时间来阅读和回顾这些笔记。

(@XDash 批注:如果你时间充裕,强烈推荐拿出 2 小时看完我的直播分享回放:我如何成功运用打游戏的思维来读书和做笔记。)

Reread (if you want to) 重复阅读(如果你想)

Read a lot. Expect something big, something exalting or deepening from a book. No book is worth reading that isn’t worth rereading.” —Susan Sontag

"大量阅读。期望从一本书中得到一些重要的东西,一些令人赞叹或深化的东西。没有一本书是值得阅读、而不值得重读的"。-苏珊·桑塔格

Skim a lot of books. Read a few. Immediately re-read the best ones twice. While rereading can seem like a waste of time because there are so many other books to read, this is a misunderstanding of the learning process. The best time to start rereading a great book is right after finishing. The goal is not to read as many books as possible. The goal is to gain as much wisdom as you can.

略过很多书。多读几本。立即将最好的书重读两遍。虽然重读似乎是在浪费时间,因为还有很多其他的书要读,但这是对学习过程的误解。开始重读一本好书的最佳时间是在读完之后。目标不是要读尽可能多的书。目标是获得尽可能多的智慧。

Rereading good books is of tremendous importance if we want to form lasting memories of the contents. Repetition is crucial for building memories.

如果我们想对书的内容形成持久的记忆,重读好书是非常重要的。重复是建立记忆的关键。

Happy reading!

阅读愉快!